This is a short list of some most obvious  Russian – Sanskrit cognate verbs.  Since one should  compare similar forms, I give Russian verbs in the same format as Sanskrit verbs are presented in traditional dictionaries (for example in Monier Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary): verbal root – 3rd person, singular, Present Tense form. For a comparison of conjugation paradigms see my other post. See also the Russian – Sanskrit nouns

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Transliteration.

Sanskrit: ā, ī, ū – long sounds; = ri (a short  similar to Rus. soft рь/r‘); c=ch; j similar to j in “jam”;   similar to shś  a subtler sort of sh, closer to German /ch/  as in  ich .

Russian: š  = sh; č = ch; ž  is similar to the g  in genre. Vowels generally correspond with the exception of  ɨ  which is a sort of  ‘hard’  i  sounding somewhat similar to unstressed i   in Eng. it . Stressed vowels are lengthened and  resemble Sanskrit ‘long’ vowels.

Russian is  a fully Satem language and most of Russian sounds  have direct correspondences in Sanskrit. There are a few exceptions, though. Sanskrit does not have the sound z so  Russian corresponds to either Skr. h (Rus. zima = Skr. hima ‘winter’)  or j (Rus. znati = Skr. janati ‘to know – (he) knows’). Russian is similar to Avestan in this respect. As it  regularly happens in Sanskrit, sounds r and l are often interchangeable : Rus l = Skr. ruc ‘ray – shine’.  Russian shares with Sanskrit  such a feature as the  iotation of vowels. Any vowel can be iotated by merging with a preceding palatal approximant  /j/. Traditionally, Sanskrit iotated vowels are transliterated as ya, yo, ye etc.  while their Russian analogues – as ja, jo, je… . To avoid confusion  with Skr  (sounding similar to j in jam), I transliterate Rus. iotated vowels here in the  Sanskrit way also as ya, yo, ye. etc.


Meaning Rus.                  Russian             Sanskrit                Meaning Skr.

to argue, to slander vad – vadit vad – vadati वद्-वदति to confer or dispute about; to contend, quarrel
to ask pros – prosit prach – prachhati प्रछ् – पृच्छति to ask, to question, interrogate
to ask various questions, make various inquiries vɨspra – vɨsprašivaet viprach – viprcchati विप्रछ – विपृच्छति to ask various questions, make various inquiries
to bake, cook peč – pečyot pас – pacati पच् – पचति to cook, bake, roast, boil
to bark lay – laet rai – rayati रै – रैयति to bark
to be, exist bɨ – budet bhū – bhavati भू – भ्वति to become, be
to beat, hit tuz – tuzit tuj – tojayati तुज् – तोजयति to hurt
to burn, to shine gor – gorit ghṛ – ghаrati घृ  – घरति to shine, burn
to caress, fondle, comfort las – laskaet las – lasāti लस् – लसति to play, sport, frolic; to embrace
to cart, transport, carry, draw voz – vozit vah – vahati वह –  वहति to carry, transport, convey
to catch lov – lovit labh – labhate लभ् – लभते to take, seize, catch
to coddle, pumper; to cherish, foster lel – lelyeet lal – lālayati लल् – लालयति to  caress, fondle, foster, cherish
to continue to do smth.., to linger on; to delay; to entertain bav – bаvit bhū – bhavayati भू – भावयति exist, be found, live, stay, abide, happen, occur; to cause to be or become; to cherish, foster
to cough kasl – kaslyaet kās – kāsate कास्कासते to cough
to dawn svet – svetaet śvit – śvetate श्वित् – श्वेतते to be bright or white
to die , decease mer – mryot mṛ – marati मृ – मरति to die, decease
to drink pi – p’yot pī – piyate पी – पीयते to drink
to dry, desiccate suš – sušit śuṣ – śuṣyati शुष् – शुषति to dry, become dry or withered
to exterminate, to make to die mor – morit mṛ – mārayati मृ –  मारयति to cause to die, kill, slay
to fall pad – padyot pad – padyate पद् – पद्यते to fall
to fart perd – perdit pard – pardati पर्द् –  पर्दति to break wind downwards
to fear, be afraid boya – boitsya bhyas – bhyasate भ्यस् – भ्य्सते to fear, be afraid, tremble
to give away otda – otdayot uddā – uddadāti उद्दा – उद्ददाति to give away
to give out, to distribute vɨd – vɨdayot vidā – vidadāti विदा – विददाति to give out, distribute, grant
to give to drink po – poit pa – pāyayati पा – पाययति to cause to drink, give to drink, water (horses or cattle)
to go, walk i – idyot iṭ – eṭati इट् – एटति to go
to happen, to be present, to frequent bɨv – bɨvaet bhū – bhavati भू – भ्वति to happen, occur
to knead mes – mesit miśr – miśrayati मिश्र् – मिश्रयति to mix, mingle, blend, combine
to know zna – znaet jña – jānāti ज्ञ – जानति to know, have knowledge
to lick liz – ližet lih – lihati लिह् – लिहति to lick
to lick out vɨliz – vɨlivaet vilih – vilelihat विलिह् – विलेलिहत् to lick continually or repeatedly
to live, dwell živ – živaet jīv – jīvati जीव् – जीवाति to live, be or remain alive
to lock; to hide (dial.) ver – veraet vṛ – varati वृ – वरति to cove, screen, veil, conceal, hide, surround, obstruct, to close (a door)
to love, like lyub – lyubit lubh – lubhati लुभ् – लुभति to desire greatly or eagerly, long for, be interested in
to make come back, turn around vorot – vorotit vṛt – vartayati वृत् – वर्तयति to cause to turn or revolve
to make warm, to melt top – topit tap – tapati तप् –  तपति to make hot or warm
to measure mer – merit mi – miroti मि –  मिरोति to measure, meter, out, mark
to milk do – doit dhe –  dhayati धे – धयति to suck, drink
to overturn, pull down, to drag down val – valit val – valiti वल् – वलति to turn, turn round
to peel, to shell vɨlup – vɨlupit vilup – vilumpati विलुप् – विलुम्पति to tear or break off or to pieces, wound, lacerate pull out or up; to tear away
to praise slav – slavit śram – śramyati श्रम् – श्राम्यति sound, shout, loud praise
to pull, stretch tyan – tyanet tan – tanoti तन् –  तनोति to stretch (a cord), extend
to push away, to cast (an arrow etc.); to flow or run quickly (usually down), to fall down ri – rinet rī – riṇāti री – रीणाति to release, set free, let go
to revolve, rotate vert – vertit vṛt – vartate वृत् – वर्तते to turn, turn round, revolve, roll
to roar, bellow, howl rev – revyot ru – ravīti रु – रवीति to roar, bellow, howl, yelp, cry aloud
to roll, turn around val – valyaet val – valate वल् – वलते to turn, turn round
to see; to know how to do smth.. vid – vidit vid – vidati विद् – विदति to notice,  observe; to know, understand, perceive, learn, become or be acquainted with, be conscious of
to seek, search; to wish isk – iščet iṣ –  icchati; eṣati इष् – इच्छति; एषति to seek, search; to desire, wish, long for, request
to sell proda – prodast pradā – pradatte प्रदा – प्रदत्ते to give away, give, offer, sell
to separate (off), to detach oddel – oddelyaet uddal – uddalati उद्दल् –  उद्दलति to split away, break away
to shake tryas – tryasyot tras –  trasyati त्रस् – त्रस्यति to tremble
to shine, glitter bles – bleščet bhlāś – bhlāśate भ्लाश् – भ्लाशते to shine, beam, glitter
to sit sid – sidit sad – sīdati सद् – सीदति to sit upon or in or at smth.
to sleep spa – spit svap – svapiti स्वप् – स्वपिति to sleep,  fall asleep
to sob rɨd – rɨdaet rud – rodati रुद् – रोदिति to weep, cry, howl, roar, lament, wail
to squeeze, pinch klešč – kleščit kliś – kliśnati क्लिश् – क्लिश्नाति to torment, cause pain
to stay awake bde – bdit budh – budhyati बुध् – बुधय्ति to be awake
to stick (to), to  adhere (to) lip – lipnet lip – limpyati लिप् – लिम्पयति to be smeared; to be attached to, to stick, to adhere
to stick, to mould, model lep – lepit lip – lepayati लिप् – लेपयति the act of smearing, daubing, anointing, plastering
to stretch out, extend, to draw out, extract vɨtyan – vɨtyanet vitan – vitanute वितन् – वितनुते to spread out, to stretch, extend,  to unfold, display, exhibit, manifest
to survive vɨživ – vɨživaet vijīv – vijīvati विजीव् – विजीवति to revive, return to life
to sweeten slad – sladit svad – svadati स्वद् –  स्वदते to make sweet or pleasant or agreeable
to swim, float plav – plavaet plu – plavate प्लु – प्लवते to float, swim
to take bra – beryot bhṛ – bharati भृ – भरति to hold, possess, have, keep
to think, imagine mni – mnit mna – manate म्ना – मनति to think, believe, imagine
to torture pɨt – pɨtaet piṭh – peṭhati पिठ् – पेठति to inflict or feel pain
to touch kas – kasaet kaṣ – kaṣati कष् – कषति to  test, try; to rub
to turn away vɨver – vɨvernet vivṛti – vivartate विवृत् – विवर्तते to turn back or away
to turn back, to come back vert – vertaet vṛt – vartate वृत् – वर्तते to turn, turn round
to twirl, to turn round and round vert – vertit vrt – vartayati वृत् – वर्तयति to cause to turn or revolve
to wake up bud – budit budh – budhyate बुध् – बुध्यते to wake up
to have sexual intercourse yeb – yebyot yabh – yabhati यभ्- यभति to have sexual intercourse
to wish, want vol – volit vṛ – vṛṇoti; varayati वृ – वरति; वरयति to choose, select, choose for one’s self, choose as; to like, love well
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