This is a  list of some most obvious  Russian – Sanskrit cognate nouns. It is only a short-list in which I give only the generally accepted cognate pairs having the rating 5 & 6.  Since one should  compare similar forms, I give Russian nouns in a special transcription, approximated to Sanskrit Latin transliteration.

Transliteration and transcription

See the full transliteration table: Abbreviations & Transliteration

Crash course:

Sanskrit: ā, ī, ū – long sounds; = ri (a short  similar to Rus. soft рь/r‘); c=ch; j similar to j in “jam”;   similar to shś  a subtler sort of sh, closer to German /ch/  as in  ich  and Rus. щ

Russian: ш = š  = sh =  ; ч =č = ch = c; ж = ž = zh = j, щ  = šč = ś  (a subtler sort of sh, closer to German /ch/  as in  ich). Vowels generally correspond with the exception of  ɨ  which is a sort of  ‘hard’  i  sounding somewhat similar to unstressed i   in Eng. it . Stressed vowels are lengthened and  resemble Sanskrit ‘long’ vowels.

In the Russian transcription y after a consonant stands for a soft sign. It renders the consonants ‘soft’. The opposition between   plain (hard)   and soft consonants (e.g. t – t’) resemble the opposition of dental and retroflex consonants in Sanskrit (e. g. t – ṭ). In fact, there are some  interesting correlations between Russian soft consonants and Sanskrit retroflex consonants.  Compare  Rus. рать  rat’ (rāty) ‘war, battle ‘  and Skr. राटि  rāṭi ‘war, battle ‘ (root  rāṭ).

Russian is  a fully Satem language and most of Russian sounds  have direct correspondences in Sanskrit. There are a few exceptions, though. Sanskrit does not have the sound z so  Russian corresponds to either Skr. h (Rus. zima = Skr. hima ‘winter’)  or j (Rus. znati = Skr. janati ‘to know – (he) knows’). Russian is similar to Avestan in this respect. As it  regularly happens in Sanskrit, sounds r and l are often interchangeable : Rus l = Skr. ruc ‘ray – shine’.  Russian shares with Sanskrit  such a feature as the  iotation of vowels. Any vowel can be iotated by merging with a preceding palatal approximant  /j/. Traditionally, Sanskrit iotated vowels are transliterated as ya, yo, ye etc.  while their Russian analogues – as ja, jo, je… . To avoid confusion  with Skr  (sounding similar to j in jam), I transliterate Rus. iotated vowels here in the  Sanskrit way also as ya, yo, ye. etc.

Rus. transliteration
Meaning
Rus. transcription
Skr. Latin.
Devanagari
Meaning
art sense, understanding (dial.) art artha अर्थ aim, purpose; sense, meaning, notion
bava wealth, prosperity, abundance (old) bāva bhava भव that which is or exists, thing or substance; well-being, prosperity, welfare, excellence
balovstvo being childish balavstvo bālāvastha बालावस्थ being  in childhood
belok white                (of the eye) belok balakṣa बलक्ष white (the colour)
bobr beaver bobr babhru बभ्रु deep-brown, reddish-brown, tawny; reddish-brown animal
Bog God bog  bhaga भग dispenser, gracious Lord, patron
bogatstvo wealth bagātstva bahutva बहुत्व abundance, multitude
bolezn’ disease,      illness balyezny balāsa बलास disease
borzaja hunting dog borzāya bhṛśa भृश without hesitation, quickly; strongly, violently, vehemently
bojazn’ fear (of) bayāzny bhiyaḥ भियः fear of, terror, dismay, danger
brat brother brāt  bhrātṛ भ्रातृ brother, a near relative or an intimate friend
bremja load,         burden bremya bharman भर्मन् load, burden
brov’ eyebrow,        the brow brovy bhrū भ्रू eyebrow, the brow
bus fog, mist būs busa बुस mist, fog
byvanie being bɨvāniye bhavanīya भवनीय to be about to become or be or happen
byt way of life,  life bɨt bhūta भूत that which is or exists, any living being; existing, present
bytie being, existence bɨtiye bhūti भूति existence, being
byto possessings (old.) bɨto bhūta भूत that which is or exists, any living being; existing, present
vaga weight vāga vaha वह bearing, drawing, conveying, carrying
vada quarrel, slander (dial.) vāda vāda वाद discussion, controversy, dispute, contest, quarrel
vakora snag, knotty or twisted branch or piece of wood vakora vakra वक्र crooked, curved, bent, tortuous, twisted
val shaft val val वल् turn round
var cattle-yard var vara वार anything which covers or surrounds or restrains
vdova widow vdavā vidhava विधव widow
veden’e knowledge, understanding, perception vyedenye vedana वेदन perception, knowledge
vjodro shiny, sunny, bright, serene weather vyodra vīdhra वीध्र clear sky, sunshine
vedun wizard vedūn  vedin वेदिन् knowing, acquainted with or versed in smth.
ved knowledge, sorcery,  magic (O.RU) vyedy vedi; veda वेदिवेद knowledge, science; knowledge, true or sacred knowledge or lore, knowledge of ritual
vereteno spindle vereteno vartana वर्तन spindle, spindle
vertenie turning vertyenie vartana वर्तन the act of turning
vesna spring          (time of year) vesnā vasanta वसन्त spring
ves’ village, settlement vyesy viś विश् settlement, homestead, house, dwelling
veter wind vyeter vātṛ वातृ air, wind
vid appearance, look; shape; view; kind   (of smth.) vid vidha विध measure, form, kind
voda water vadā voda वोद wet, moist, damp;  the ocean, water
voz cart, load transported  by horse vos vah वह to carry, transport, convey
vozok sleigh (closed) vazok vāhaka वाहक one who bears or carries, bearer, carrier
volk wolf volk vṛka वृक wolf
volna wave valnā valana वलन waving, moving round in a circle, waving, undulation
volos hair volas vāla वाल any tail or hair
volot composed of filaments; thread, fibre; stalk, panicle volaty varāṭa वराट rope
volja will volya vara वर choosing
von’ smell vony vāna वान perfume, fragrance
vopros question vapros vipraśna विप्रश्न interrogation of fate
vorožba sorcery varajbā varaṣāpa वरशाप blessing and curse
vorot winch, windlass vorat vṛtta वृत्त turned, set in motion (as a wheel)
vorota gate varota vāra वार gate, door-way,anything which causes an obstruction
vražja hostile vrājya vrajya व्रज्य attack, invasion
vratar’ doorman, goal-keeper vratāṛ  vartṛ  वर्तृ one who keeps back or wards of
vrač doctor, medic vrac vrajaka व्रजक wandering religious mendicant
vyvert caper (a frolicsome leap or spring; a skip; a jump, as in mirth or dancing; a prank) vɨvyert vivṛtti विवृत्ति turning round, revolution, rolling, whirling, tumbling
vyšina height vɨsinā viṣāṇa विषाण peak, top, point, summit
galda talk, noise galdā galda गल्द speech
gar’ burning, cinders, ashes; smell of burning gāṛ ghṛ; ghrā घृ; घ्रा to burn; to smell
goved bovine goved gava गव cow, cattle
golod hunger,    acute   shortage       of smth. golad gardha गर्ध desire, greediness, eagerness
gora mountain garā giri गिरि mountain
gorene burning,         fire garyenie ghṛṇa घृण heat, ardour, sunshine
gorn furnace,      forge gorn ghṛṇ घृण् to burn
dver’ door dvyeṛ dvāra द्वार gate, door
dvoe two, both dvoye dvaya द्वय two things, both
dvojka two, two of smth dvoyka dvika द्विक consisting of two, twofold
dvojstvo duality dvoistva dvitva द्वित्व duality; dual
dever’ husband’s brother dyeveṛ devṛ देवृ husband’s brother
den’ day dyeny dina दिन day
derevo wood dyerevo dāru, dārava दारुदारव a piece of wood, wood, timber; wooden, made of wood
dom house dom dam, dama दम्दम house
žena wife jenā janī जनी woman, wife; birth, production
život life, living (old) jivot jīva जीव living, alive
znanie knowledge znāniye jñāna ज्ञान knowledge, the higher knowledge (derived from meditation on the one Universal Spirit)
znatok connoisseur znatok jānaka जानक knower (a Buddha)
zub tooth zub jambha जम्भ tooth
igo yoke (old) īgo yuga युग yoke
il silt, soil īl ilā इला the earth
kašel’ cough kāṣely kās कास् cough
kolokol bell kolakal kala, kalakala कलकलकल emitting a soft tone, melodious; any confused noise (as a tinkling or rattling sound etc.)
kosa braid, hair kasā keśa केश a lock of hair on the crown of the head
kost’ bone kosty aṣṭhi अष्ठि bone; the kernel of a fruit
krat times, -fold krat kṛtvaḥ कृत्वः
krov blood krovy kraviḥ क्रव्य raw flesh, carrion
kub, kubok cup, pitcher kubak kumbha कुम्भ jar, pitcher
kuta room with a stove (dial), warm place; house, hut, cabin kuta kuṭa कुट house, family
laj barking lai rai रै barking, sound, noise
las sweet loving, volumptious las las लस् to play, sport, frolic; to embrace
los’ elk (male) losy ṛśa; ṛṣya ऋशऋष्य male of a species of antelope
luč ray (of light etc) luc ruс रुच् light, lustre, brightness
ljalja doll; baby lala lala लल sporting, playful;
lolling, wagging
mater’ mother, female parent māteṛ mātṛ मातृ mother
mat’ mother māty māta मात mother
mga mist, cold fog mgā megha मेघ cloud
mjod honey myod madhu; mada मधु ; मद honey, sweet, delicious, pleasant; honey
mera measure         (i.e. of smth.) myera mirā मिरा limit, boundary
mor death mor mara मर death
mesjac moon myesyats māsa मास the moon
mesjac month myesyats mās मास् a month or the 12th part of the Hindu year
mex winskin, water-skin myeh meṣa मेष ram, sheep
mnenie opinion mnyeniye manaḥ, māna मनः, मान mind,  thought, imagination
mozg brain,    marrow mozg majjan मज्जन् marrow of bones
moška midge moṣka maśaka मशक mosquito, gnat, any fly that bites or stings
myška mouse (small) mɨṣka muṣka मुष्क little mouse
myš’ mouse mɨṣ mūṣ मूषिक rat,  mouse
mjaso meat myāsa mās मास् flesh, meat
nebesa skies nebesā nabhasa नभस the sky or atmosphere  (du. heaven and earth.)
nebo sky nyeba nabha नभ the sky, atmosphere
nizina low place, depression nizīna nihīna निहीन low
nov’ newness novy nava नव new, fresh, recent, young, modern
nogot’ finger nail nogaty nakha नख finger-nail,  toe-nail, claw, talon
nos nose nos nasa नस the nose
nosik nose (little) nosik nasika नासिक nostril, the nose
oven ram oven avi sheep
ogon’, ogn’ fire agony, ogny agni अग्नि fire, sacrificial fire
oko eye oka akṣa अक्ष eye
pekar’ baker pyekaṛ paktṛ पक्तृ who or what cooks or roasts or bakes
pena foam, spume pyena phena फेन foam, froth
pervak the first          (the best)   part of home brew pyervāk pūrvaka पूर्वक prior, first
pervina first,   foremost (dial.) pervina pūrviṇa पूर्विण derived from ancestors or fore-fathers, ancestral
pernat feathered, plumed pyernāt parnin पर्णिन् winged, plumed
pero feather pyero parṇa पर्ण pinion, feather (also of an arrow), wing
peč stove pyec paci पचि fire, cooking
pivo beer,          any drink    (old Slav.) pīvа pīva पीव water
pit’jo drink pityo pītha पीथ drink
plavane swim, swimming plāvaniye plavana प्लवन swimming
plov boat (arch.) plov plava प्लव float, raft, boat, small ship
plot raft plot pluta  प्लुत floating or swimming
pod sole (of furnace), hearth-stone pod pāda पाद the foot or leg of an inanimate object, the bottom
polnota fullness palnatā pūrṇatā पूर्णता fullness
polova chaff, husks palova palāva पलाव chaff, husks
pramater mother’s mother, the First Mother pramātyeṛ pramātṛ प्रमातृ the mother’s mother
prašča sling  (weapon) prāśa prāsa प्रास a barbed missile or dart; casting, throwing
predanie tradition, legend predāniye pradāna प्रदान of the sacred text recited on occasion of giving gifts to gods;  teaching, imparting, announcing, declaring
preddverie threshhold predverie pradvār प्रद्वार् place before a door or gate
prodaža sale prаdāja parādā परादा give in exchange for, barter against
putnik traveller, wayfarer pūtnik pathika पथिक traveller  wayfarer
puty hobble, fetters,   chains pūtɨ puṭ पुट to clasp, fold, envelop
put’ way, road pūty patha पथ way, path, road, course
pytka torture pɨtka pitha पिठ् pain, distress
rabota work rabota ṛbhu ऋभ artist, one who works in iron, a smith, builder
rad glad rāda rāddha राद्ध fortunate, happy
rjov roaring ryov rava रव roar, yell, cry, howl
revun howler revūn ravaṇa रवण roaring, yelling, crying, howling
rosa dew rasā rasa रस water, nectar
rud red rūd rudh रुध् a root word with a meaning ” to be red.”
rydane weeping, crying rɨdāñye rudana रुदन the act of crying, weeping
svet light, brightness svyet śvit श्वित् to be bright or white
sveča candle svecā śvetya श्वेत्य white, brilliant (as the dawn)
svojak brother-in-law svayāk svaka स्वक m. one of one’s own people, a relation, kinsman
slava fame (being talked about or heard about) slāva śravas, śrava श्रव glory, fame
slad sweetness slad svadu स्वादु sweet, savoury, palatable, dainty, delicate
slovo word slova śravas श्रवो, श्रवः sound, shout, loud praise
snoxa daughter-in-law (father’s) snahā snuṣā स्नुषा daughter-in-law
stan camp stān sthāna स्थान the act of standing, standing firmly, being fixed or stationary
suša land, dry land sūṣa śuṣa शुष drying up
suška drying,          dry cracker sūṣka śuṣka शुष्क dried, dried up, dry
suš’ dry spell or object sūṣy śuṣ शुष् drying, withering
syn son sɨn sūnu, sūna सूनु  सून son
tata daddy (dial.) tāta tata, tāta तत, तात father (familiar expression)
topitel’ heater tapītel tapt तप्तृ heater
trojka three,     troika troyka trika त्रिक triple, threefold, forming a triad
t’ma darkness tymā tama तम darknes
ugol’ coal ūgaly aṅgāra  अङ्गार charcoal
usta mouth, lips ustā oṣṭha ओष्ठ the lip
uxa soup, broth uhā yūṣa यूष soup, broth
uxo ear ūha ūṣa ऊष the cavity of the ear
xoromy mansion haromɨ harmya हर्म्य large house, palace, mansion, any house or large building or residence of a wealthy person
juza restraint, shackles yūza yuj युज् to yoke or join or fasten or harness (horses or a chariot)
juk pack, load yūk yukta (yuj) युक्त (युज्) P.P.P of the verb “yuj” to yoke or join or fasten or harness (horses or a chariot); to join, unite, connect, combine, bring or put together
jatrov wife of husband’s  brother yatrovy yātṛ यातृ husband’s brother’s wife
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